Implementation of an intervention to improve the adoption of asthma self-management practices in Peru: Asthma Implementation Research (AIRE) randomized trial study protocol

Elisa D. Romani, Trishul Siddharthan, Nair Lovatón, Carol C. Alvítez-Luna, Oscar Flores-Flores, Suzanne L. Pollard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children worldwide, with 80% of asthma-related deaths occurring in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). While evidence-based guidelines exist for asthma treatment and management, adoption of guideline-based practices is low in high-income country and LMIC settings alike. While asthma prevalence among children and adolescents in Lima, Peru is in the range of 13%-19.6%, our data suggest that < 5% of children in low-resource communities are currently taking guideline-based therapies. There is an urgent need for effective, locally tailored solutions to address the asthma treatment gap in low-income communities in Peru. Methods: This study aims to develop and test a locally adapted intervention package to improve adoption of self-management practices and utilization of preventive health services for asthma among children in Lima Norte. The intervention package was designed using a systematic, theory-based framework (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behavior Framework) and is rooted in a multi-phased formative research approach. The main study design is an individually randomized implementation-effectiveness hybrid trial enrolling 110 children aged 5-17 years with asthma and their caregivers. Families allocated to the treatment group receive the supported self-management intervention package, while families allocated to the control group receive the standard of care plus asthma education. We will follow participants monthly for six months and evaluate asthma control (Asthma Control Test), healthcare utilization, and medication adherence (Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale). Disease-specific quality of life for children (Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire) and caregivers (Pediatric Asthma Caregiver's Quality of Life Questionnaire) will be evaluated at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. We will also evaluate acceptability, feasibility, and fidelity of the intervention using mixed methods approaches. Discussion: The long-term goal of this study is to disseminate locally appropriate asthma management strategies in LMIC settings. This study will contribute to the body of knowledge surrounding approaches for developing and evaluating intervention strategies for asthma using systematic, theory-based approaches grounded in local context. Such strategies have the potential to inform the development and adaptation of appropriate and scalable solutions for asthma management in LMIC settings. Trial registration:, NCT03986177. Registered on 14 June 2019.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number377
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 4 2020


  • Asthma
  • Asthma action plan
  • Asthma community home visit
  • Asthma self-management practices
  • Implementation Science
  • Randomized controlled trial

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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