Implementation of a Perioperative Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis Program for Patients Undergoing Radical Cystectomy on an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Protocol

H. Abraham Chiang, Philip J. Cheng, Jacqueline M. Speed, Jill Steinberg, Peter A. Najjar, Graeme S. Steele, Quoc Dien Trinh, Jairam R. Eswara, Steven L. Chang, Adam S. Kibel, Matthias F. Stopfkuchen-Evans, Mark A. Preston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: Novel venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis programs, including postdischarge pharmacologic prophylaxis, have been associated with decreased VTE rates. Such practices have not been widely adopted in managing radical cystectomy (RC) patients. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a perioperative VTE prophylaxis program on VTE rates after RC. Design, setting, and participants: Single-institution, nonrandomized, pre- and post-intervention analysis of 319 patients undergoing RC at Brigham and Women's Hospital between July 2011 and April 2017. Patient and outcome data were prospectively collected as part of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Intervention: Before June 2015, patients only received postoperative pharmacologic and mechanical VTE prophylaxis in the inpatient setting. Starting June 2015, a perioperative VTE prophylaxis program was implemented as part of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol, including a 28-d course of postdischarge enoxaparin. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Primary outcome was 30-d postoperative VTE rate. Secondary outcomes were perioperative bleeding rates, 30-d complication, readmission, and mortality rates, and length of stay. Univariate analysis was performed comparing outcomes between pre- and post-intervention cohorts. Results and limitations: Of the 319 patients who underwent RC, 210 (66%) were in the pre- and 109 (34%) in the post-intervention cohort. VTE rate was significantly lower in the post-intervention cohort (n = 1, 0.9% vs n = 13, 6.2%; p = 0.04). Rates of perioperative bleeding (35% vs 33%; p = 0.80) and 30-d readmissions related to bleeding (1% vs 3.7%; p = 0.19) did not differ significantly. Single-institution data limits generalizability, and patient compliance with postdischarge enoxaparin was unknown. Conclusions: Implementation of a perioperative VTE prophylaxis program as part of an ERAS protocol that includes extended postdischarge pharmacologic prophylaxis was associated with decreased rate of VTE events after RC. Perioperative bleeding and readmissions related to bleeding did not increase with this intervention. Patient summary: This study evaluated whether clotting complication rates after radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer can be reduced by implementing a new postoperative care pathway. This pathway reduced rates of clotting complications without increasing bleeding rates and should be considered for all patients undergoing RC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)74-80
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Urology Focus
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 15 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Bladder cancer
  • Enhanced recovery after surgery
  • Radical cystectomy
  • Thromboprophylaxis
  • Venous thromboembolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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