Impact of sex on response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with bladder cancer

David D'Andrea, Peter C. Black, Homayoun Zargar, Kamran Zargar-Shoshtari, Sonja Zehetmayer, Adrian S. Fairey, Laura S. Mertens, Colin P. Dinney, Maria C. Mir, Laura Maria Krabbe, Michael S. Cookson, Niels Erik Jacobsen, Jeffrey S. Montgomery, Nikhil Vasdev, Evan Y. Yu, Evanguelos Xylinas, Nicholas J. Campain, Wassim Kassouf, Marc A. Dall'Era, Jo An SeahCesar E. Ercole, Simon Horenblas, Srikala S. Sridhar, John S. McGrath, Jonathan Aning, Jonathan L. Wright, Andrew C. Thorpe, Todd M. Morgan, Jeffrey M. Holzbeierlein, Trinity J. Bivalacqua, Scott North, Daniel A. Barocas, Yair Lotan, Petros Grivas, Andrew J. Stephenson, Jay B. Shah, Bas W. van Rhijn, Siamak Daneshmand, Philippe E. Spiess, Shahrokh F. Shariat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objective: To assess the effect of patient's sex on response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with clinically nonmetastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Methods: Complete pathologic response, defined as ypT0N0 at radical cystectomy, and downstaging were evaluated using sex-adjusted univariable and multivariable logistic regression modeling. We used interaction terms to account for age of menopause and smoking status. The association of sex with overall survival and cancer-specific survival was evaluated using Cox regression analyses. Results: A total of 1,031 patients were included in the analysis, 227 (22%) of whom were female. Female patients had a higher rate of extravesical disease extension (P = 0.01). After the administration of NAC, ypT stage was equally distributed between sexes (P = 0.39). On multivariable logistic regression analyses, there was no difference between the sexes or age of menopause with regards to ypT0N0 rates or downstaging (all P > 0.5). On Cox regression analyses, sex was associated with neither overall survival (hazard ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.75–1.45, P = 0.81) nor cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.71–1.58, P = 0.77). Conclusion: Our study generates the hypothesis that NAC equalizes the preoperative disparity in pathologic stage between males and females suggesting a possible differential response between sexes. This might be the explanation underlying the comparable survival outcomes between sexes despite females presenting with more advanced tumor stage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)639.e1-639.e9
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2020


  • Bladder cancer
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy
  • Response
  • Sex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology


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