Impact of rotavirus vaccine on diarrhea-associated disease burden among American Indian and Alaska native children

Rishi Desai, Dana Haberling, Robert C. Holman, Rosalyn J. Singleton, James E. Cheek, Amy V. Groom, Claudia A. Steiner, Umesh D. Parashar, Douglas H. Esposito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: Beginning in 2006, the Indian Health Service (IHS) began rotavirus vaccination of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) infants. To assess vaccine impact, we examined trends in IHS diarrhea-associated hospitalization and outpatient visits among AI/AN children in the pre- and postrotavirus vaccine era. METHODS: Diarrhea-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits among AI/AN children <5 years of age during 2001 through 2010 were examined by gender, age group, and region for prevaccine years 2001-2006 and postvaccine years 2008, 2009, and 2010. To account for secular declining trends observed in prevaccine years, expected diarrhea-associated hospitalization and outpatient rates for postvaccine years were generated by using Poisson regression analysis of the 2001-2006 annual rates. RESULTS: Coverage with at least 1 dose of rotavirus vaccine among AI/AN infants aged 3 to 5 months in the first half of 2008, 2009, and 2010 ranged from 48% to 80% in various IHS regions. The prevaccine average annual diarrhea-associated hospitalization rates among AI/AN children <5 years of age was 63 per 10 000 persons (range: 57-75 per 10 000), and declined to 39, 31, and 27 per 10 000 in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Observed 2008, 2009, and 2010 rates were 24%, 37%, and 44% lower than expected rates, respectively. Decreases in diarrhea-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits were observed in all IHS regions. CONCLUSIONS: Diarrhea-associated hospitalization and outpatient visit rates among AI/AN children have declined after implementation of rotavirus vaccination in AI/AN populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e907-e913
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Alaska native
  • American Indian
  • Children
  • Infants
  • Rotavirus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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