Background: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are the most common mode of circulatory support for patients awaiting heart transplantation. Unfortunately, a fraction of these patients require pump exchange during their course for pump-related adverse events. This study examined whether LVAD exchanges affect posttransplantation outcomes. Methods: This study focused on adult patients in the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database who were bridged to transplant with a LVAD implanted between 2007 and 2017. Patients who underwent LVAD exchange were compared with those supported with a single device. The primary end point was all-cause mortality at 1, 2, and 5 years after transplantation. The impact of device exchange on risk-adjusted outcomes was examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Among 8239 patients who met the inclusion criteria, there were 611 pump exchanges in 560 patients (7% of recipients). The pump exchange rate was 6.24 events per 100 patient-years. Survival at 5 years was lower for those who underwent LVAD exchange (69.4% vs 77.5%, log-rank P =.027). This finding was similar for risk-adjusted 5-year mortality (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 1.67; P =.003). Subgroup analysis revealed lower 5-year survival for female recipients who underwent LVAD exchange (55.4% vs 79.7%, log-rank P <.001). The interaction between female sex and LVAD exchange was associated with increased risk-adjusted 5-year mortality (hazard ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 2.59; P =.030). Conclusions: Recipients who underwent pump exchange while awaiting heart transplantation had a higher mortality compared with those on a primary device. Subgroup analysis revealed a marked increase in mortality of female recipients who experienced LVAD exchange.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine