Sera from patients with localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP) often contain markedly elevated levels of immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) antibodies reactive to cell envelope constituents of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. The objective of this study was to determine if these IgG2 antibodies are capable of supporting phagocytosis and killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans by human neutrophils. Polyclonal IgG2 antibodies were prepared from high-titer LJP serum by affinity chromatography, yielding a preparation which was subclass restricted and retained immunoreactivity to A. actinomycetemcomitans antigens. Affinity-purified IgG2 antibodies were evaluated by an in vitro opsonophagocytic assay that employed neutrophils obtained from donors who were homozygous for the H131 allotype of Fcγ receptor type IIa (CD32), which efficiently binds human IgG2 antibodies. Affinity-purified IgG2 antibodies from LJP serum but not from sera of periodontally healthy individuals promoted phagocytosis and killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans. The expression of IgG2-dependent opsonic activity required the presence of complement. Incubation of A. actinomycetemcomitans with neutrophils in the presence of an optimal concentration of LJP IgG2 (50 μg/ml) and 5% hypogammaglobulinemic serum (as a complement source) resulted in a >1 log10 reduction in bacterial viability within 30 min. The opsonic activity of IgG2 antibodies was found to be comparable to that observed with affinity-purified IgG1 antibodies. Moreover, IgG1 antibodies interacted synergistically with IgG2 antibodies in promoting opsonophagocytosis of A. actinomycetemcomitans. The results of this study indicate that LJP serum contains IgG2 antibodies which, when employed in conjunction with neutrophils that express Fcγ receptors capable of recognizing this subclass, are opsonic for A. actinomycetemcomitans.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases