Immunogenicity of 2-Dose HPV Vaccine Series for Postpartum Women An Open-Label, Nonrandomized, Noninferiority Trial

Chailee F. Moss, Runzhi Wang, Saumya Sao, Betty Chou, Jamie Perin, Megan E. Lander, Sejal M. Thaker, Melindia Mann, Jenell S. Coleman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


IMPORTANCE Postpartum human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is a promising strategy to increase HPV vaccination uptake in the US, particularly for reaching vaccine-naive women and those who lack health insurance beyond the pregnancy period. However, completion of the 3-dose vaccine regimen is challenging. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the immunogenicity of a 2-dose postpartum HPV vaccination regimen (0 and 6 months) and assess whether it is noninferior to a 3-dose postpartum HPV vaccination regimen (0, 1-2, and 6 months) administered to historical controls. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A noninferiority, open-label, nonrandomized immunogenicity trial was conducted from August 4, 2020, to June 23, 2022, of postpartum patients aged 15 to 45 years who delivered at 2 hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland. Historical controls were adolescents and young women aged 16 to 26 years. INTERVENTION Two doses of the nonavalent HPV vaccine administered 6 months apart. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was noninferiority (90% CI, lower bound >0.67) of the geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio for HPV-16 among postpartum women compared with historical controls. Secondary outcomes were noninferiority of GMT ratios for the other 8 HPV types and percentage seroconversion for each HPV type. As a noninferiority trial, the primary analysis used the per-protocol analysis. RESULTS Of 225 enrolled participants, the mean (SD) age at baseline was 29.9 (6.8) years, and 171 (76.0%) were HPV-16 seronegative at baseline. Of these 171 participants, 129 (75.4%) received a second vaccine dose and completed the subsequent 4-week serologic measurements. Relative to historical controls, the HPV-16 GMT ratio was 2.29 (90% CI, 2.03-2.58). At month 7, HPV-16 GMT was higher after the 2-dose regimen (7213.1 mMU/mL [90% CI, 6245.0-8331.4 mMU/mL]) than among historic controls after the 3-dose regimen (3154.0 mMU/mL [90% CI, 2860.2-3478.0 mMU/mL]). Similarly, the lower bound of the 90% CI of the GMT ratio was above 1 for the 8 HPV types 6, 11, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58. A total of 118 of 134 women (88.1%) seroconverted for HPV-16 after the first dose; 4 weeks after the second dose, the seroconversion rate was 99% or greater for all HPV types. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This study suggests that immunogenicity of a 2-dose HPV vaccination regimen given 6 months apart among postpartum women was noninferior to a 3-dose regimen among young historical controls. Most women seroconverted after the first dose of the 2-dose regimen. These results demonstrate that postpartum vaccination using a reduced schedule may be a promising strategy to increase HPV vaccine series completion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E2352996
JournalJAMA Network Open
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 29 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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