Immunogenicity and safety of two doses of catch-up immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in Indian children living with HIV

Bikas K. Arya, Sangeeta Das Bhattacharya, Catherine G. Sutcliffe, Malay K. Saha, Subhasish Bhattacharyya, Swapan Kumar Niyogi, William J. Moss, Samiran Panda, Ranjan Saurav Das, Mausom Mallick, Sutapa Mandal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: Children living with HIV are at increased risk of disease from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Data are limited on the immunogenicity of a two-dose, catch-up schedule for Hib conjugate vaccine (HibCV) among HIV-infected children accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) late. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluate baseline immunity to Hib and the immunogenicity and safety of two doses of HibCV among HIV-infected Indian children; and (2) document the threshold antibody level required to prevent Hib colonization among HIV-infected children following immunization. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study among HIV-infected children 2-15 years of age and HIV-uninfected children 2-5 years of age. HIV-infected children received two doses of HibCV and uninfected children received one. Serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibodies were measured at baseline and two months after immunization in the HIV-infected children. Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: 125 HIV-infected and 44 uninfected children participated. 40% of HIV-infected children were receiving ART and 26% had a viral load >100,000 copies/mL. The geometric mean concentration of serum anti-Hib PRP antibody increased from 0.25 μg/mL at baseline to 2.65 μg/mL after two doses of HibCV, representing a 10.6-fold increase (p < 0.0001). 76% percent of HIV-infected children mounted an immune response. Moderate or severe immune suppression, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis, and lower baseline antibody levels were associated with lower post-vaccine serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibodies. A serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibody level ≥3.3 μg/mL was protective against Hib NP colonization. There were no differences in adverse events between HIV-infected and uninfected children. Conclusion: Including a catch-up immunization schedule for older HIV infected children in countries introducing Hib vaccines is important. Older HIV-infected children with delayed access to ART and without suppressed viral loads mounted an adequate immune response following two doses of HibCV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2267-2274
Number of pages8
Issue number19
StatePublished - Apr 27 2016


  • Anti-Hib PRP IgG
  • Conjugate vaccines
  • HIV
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b
  • Immune response
  • Nasopharyngeal carriage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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