Immune status at presentation for HIV clinical care in Rio de Janeiro and Baltimore

Ronaldo I. Moreira, Paula M. Luz, Claudio J. Struchiner, Mariza Morgado, Valdilea G. Veloso, Jeanne C. Keruly, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Richard D. Moore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Background: Late presentation to HIV clinical care increases individual risk for (multiple) clinical events and death, and decreases successful response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In Brazil, provision of HAART free of charge to all individuals infected with HIV could lead to increased testing and linkage to care. Methods: We assessed the immune status of 2555 patients who newly presented for HIV clinical care between 1997 and 2009 at the Johns Hopkins Clinical Cohort, in Baltimore, Md, and at the Instituto de Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas Clinical Cohort, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mean change in the CD4 cell count per year was estimated using multivariate linear regression models. Results: Overall, from 1997 to 2009, 56% and 54% of the patients presented for HIV clinical care with CD4 count ≤350 cells per cubic millimeter in Baltimore and Rio de Janeiro, respectively. On average, 75% of the patients presented with viral load >10,000 copies per millimeter. In Rio de Janeiro only, the overall adjusted per year increase in the mean CD4 cell count was statistically significant (5 cells/mm, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 10 cells/mm). Conclusions: We found that, over years, the majority of patients presented late, that is, with a CD4 count <350 cells per cubic millimeter. Our findings indicate that, despite the availability of HAART for more than a decade, and mass media campaigns stimulating HIV testing in both countries, the proportion of patients who start therapy at an advanced stage of the disease is still high.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S171-S178
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue numberSUPPL. 3
StatePublished - Aug 15 2011


  • care
  • immunodefi-ciency
  • late diagnosis/presentation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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