Immune Responses in Macaques to a Prototype Recombinant Adenovirus Live Oral Human Papillomavirus 16 Vaccine

Michael G. Berg, Robert J. Adams, Ratish Gambhira, Mark C. Siracusa, Alan L. Scott, Richard B.S. Roden, Gary Ketner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Immunization with human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) prevents infection with HPV. However, the expense and logistical demands of current VLP vaccines will limit their widespread use in resource-limited settings, where most HPV-induced cervical cancer occurs. Live oral adenovirus vaccines have properties that are well-suited for use in such settings. We have described a live recombinant adenovirus vaccine prototype that produces abundant HPV16 L1 protein from the adenovirus major late transcriptional unit and directs the assembly of HPV16 VLPs in tissue culture. Re-combinant- derived VLPs potently elicit neutralizing antibodies in mice. Here, we characterize the immune response to the recombinant after dual oral and intranasal immunization of pigtail macaques, in which the virus replicates as it would in immunized humans. The immunization of macaques induced vigorous humoral responses to adenovirus capsid and nonstructural proteins, although, surprisingly, not against HPV L1. In contrast, immunization elicited strong T-cell responses to HPV VLPs as well as adenovirus virions. T-cell responses arose immediately after the primary immunization and were boosted by a second immunization with recombinant virus. T-cell immunity contributes to protection against a wide variety of pathogens, including many viruses. The induction of a strong cellular response by the recombinant indicates that live adenovirus recombinants have potential as vaccines for those agents. These studies encourage and will inform the continued development of viable recombinant adenovirus vaccines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1224-1231
Number of pages8
JournalClinical and Vaccine Immunology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Microbiology (medical)


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