Immune-Related Adverse Effects of Cancer Immunotherapy— Implications for Rheumatology

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62 Scopus citations


Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are increasingly studied and used as therapy for a growing number of malignancies. ICIs work by blocking inhibitory pathways of T-cell activation, leading to an immune response directed against tumors. Such nonspecific immunologic activation can lead to immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). Some IRAEs, including inflammatory arthritis, sicca syndrome, myositis, and vasculitis, are of special interest to rheumatologists. As use of ICIs increases, recognition of these IRAEs and developing treatment strategies will become important. In this review, the current literature on rheumatic and musculoskeletal IRAEs is summarized. The incidence, clinical presentations, and treatment considerations are highlighted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)65-78
Number of pages14
JournalRheumatic Disease Clinics of North America
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017


  • Arthritis
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors
  • Immune-related adverse events
  • Malignancy
  • Sicca syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology


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