Identifying transmission routes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and sources of acquisitions in high transmission communities

B. M. Althouse, L. L. Hammitt, L. Grant, B. G. Wagner, R. Reid, F. Larzelere-Hinton, R. Weatherholtz, K. P. Klugman, G. L. Rodgers, K. L. O'Brien, H. Hu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Identifying the transmission sources and reservoirs of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is a long-standing question for pneumococcal epidemiology, transmission dynamics, and vaccine policy. Here we use serotype to identify SP transmission and examine acquisitions (in the same household, local community, and county, or of unidentified origin) in a longitudinal cohort of children and adults from the Navajo Nation and the White Mountain Apache American Indian Tribes. We found that adults acquire SP relatively more in the household than other age groups, and children 2-8 years old typically acquire in their own or surrounding communities. Age-specific transmission probability matrices show that transmissions within household were mostly seen from older to younger siblings. Outside the household, children most often transmit to other children in the same age group, showing age-assortative mixing behavior. We find toddlers and older children to be most involved in SP transmission and acquisition, indicating their role as key drivers of SP epidemiology. Although infants have high carriage prevalence, they do not play a central role in transmission of SP compared with toddlers and older children. Our results are relevant to inform alternative pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing strategies and analytic efforts to inform optimization of vaccine programs, as well as assessing the transmission dynamics of pathogens transmitted by close contact in general.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2750-2758
Number of pages9
JournalEpidemiology and infection
Issue number13
StatePublished - Oct 1 2017


  • Infectious disease epidemiology
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus)
  • modelling
  • spread of disease
  • vaccine policy development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Infectious Diseases


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