Identification of residual tumor with intraoperative contrast-enhanced ultrasound during glioblastoma resection

Francesco Prada, Massimiliano Del Bene, Riccardo Fornaro, Ignazio G. Vetrano, Alberto Martegani, Luca Aiani, Luca Maria Sconfienza, Giovanni Mauri, Luigi Solbiati, Bianca Pollo, Francesco DiMeco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations


Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the capability of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to identify residual tumor mass during glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) surgery, to increase the extent of resection. Methods The authors prospectively evaluated 10 patients who underwent surgery for GBM removal with navigated ultrasound guidance. Navigated B-mode and CEUS were performed prior to resection, during resection, and after complete tumor resection. Areas suspected for residual tumors on B-mode and CEUS studies were localized within the surgical field with navigated ultrasound and samples were sent separately for histopathological analysis to confirm tumor presence. Results In all cases tumor remnants were visualized as hyperechoic areas on B-mode, highlighted as CEUS-positive areas, and confirmed as tumoral areas on histopathological analysis. In 1 case only, CEUS partially failed to demonstrate residual tumor because the residual hyperechoic area was devascularized prior to ultrasound contrast agent injection. In all cases CEUS enhanced B-mode findings. Conc lusions As has already been shown in other neoplastic lesions in other organs, CEUS is extremely specific in the identification of residual tumor. The ability of CEUS to distinguish between tumor and artifacts or normal brain on B-mode is based on its capacity to show the vascularization degree and not the echogenicity of the tissues. Therefore, CEUS can play a decisive role in the process of maximizing GBM resection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberE7
JournalNeurosurgical Focus
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016


  • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound
  • Extent of resection
  • Glioblastoma
  • Intraoperative imaging
  • Intraoperative ultrasound
  • Residual tumor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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