Hyperplastic polyps of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction region (EGJ) are uncommon lesions characterized by hyperplastic epithelium (foveolar-type, squamous, or both) with variable amounts of inflamed stroma. They have been reported almost exclusively in the radiologic and clinical literature as occurring predominantly in association with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Comprehensive histologic and clinicopathologic evaluation of these polyps, their association with background mucosal pathology, and their association with Barrett's esophagus has not been previously performed. We studied 30 hyperplastic polyps from 27 patients and characterized the histologic, endoscopic, and clinical features of both the polyps and the background esophagus. Hyperplastic polyps were most common in the region of the EGJ (67%), followed by the distal esophagus (30%) and mid-esophagus (3%). Most (80%) were composed of predominantly cardiac-type mucosa, predominantly squamous mucosa (17%), or an admixture (3%). Intestinal metaplasia of the polyp was present in only 7% and low-grade dysplasia in only 3%. In the majority of cases (67%) hyperplastic polyps were associated with concurrent or recent ulcers or erosive esophagitis. In most cases (48%) esophageal injury was associated with GERD, but other potential etiologies included medications, infection, anastomotic or polypectomy sites, vomiting, and photodynamic therapy. Four patients (15%) had Barrett's esophagus, three of whom had or developed dysplastic Barrett's mucosa. These results underscore the pathogenesis of esophageal/EGJ region hyperplastic polyps as a mucosal regenerative response to surrounding mucosal injury. Careful clinical history and biopsy of the nonpolypoid mucosa are essential for determining the clinicopathologic context in which the polyps have developed.
- Barrett's esophagus
- Esophagogastric junction
- Hyperplastic polyp
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine