Background Recent studies suggest there are gender-specific differences in injury response that may be related to coagulation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that rapid thrombelastography (rTEG) coagulation profiles differ by gender. Methods Adult trauma patients were prospectively followed at 3 level 1 trauma centers over a 14-month period. rTEG was obtained upon arrival and serially at several time points during the hospital stay. Female patients were stratified into premenopausal (≤50 years) and postmenopausal (>50 years) age groups with age-matched male cohorts. Values were analyzed using a repeated-measures multilevel linear model to evaluate the effect of gender on coagulation. Results A total of 795 patients had serial rTEG data (24% female and 76% male). Compared with age-matched males, premenopausal females were more hypercoagulable by rTEG on admission (P <.001) and for the first 12 hours after arrival. Gender was an effect modifier for alpha angle (P =.02) and maximum amplitude (P =.04). Controlling for Injury Severity Score and mechanism of injury, age-matched males had a >4-fold increased risk of hypercoagulable complications than premenopausal females (odds ratio, 4.7; P =.038). Conclusion This prospective, multicenter study demonstrates that premenopausal females are relatively hypercoagulable compared with age-matched males early after injury. However, this did not translate into higher thromboembolic complications.
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