Hyper-expression of PAX2 in human metastatic prostate tumors and its role as a cancer promoter in an in vitro invasion model

Takashi Ueda, Saya Ito, Takumi Shiraishi, Prakash Kulkarni, Akihisa Ueno, Hideo Nakagawa, Yasunori Kimura, Fumiya Hongo, Kazumi Kamoi, Akihiro Kawauchi, Tsuneharu Miki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND Metastasis is a consequence of many biological events, during which cancer stem cells are shifted into a malignant state. Among these events, invasion of prostate cancer cells into host tissues is possible to be assessed by means of an in vitro invasion model, and is thought to be coupled to altered expression of membrane proteins. Dysregulated functions of the factors regulating organogenesis during embryogenesis are known to facilitate metastasis of many types of cancers. PAX2 (paired box 2) is a member of the PAX transcription factor family, which regulates prostatic ductal growth and branching in organogenesis of mammalian prostates. However, the role of PAX2 in prostate cancer development remains to be determined. METHODS PAX2 expression in human prostate cancers and normal prostate epithelium were examined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Matrigel invasion assay and a gene array analysis were performed using prostate cancer cell lines transfected with either control or PAX2 siRNA. RESULTS In human prostate cancers, PAX2 was hyper-expressed in metastatic cancers, but was expressed at lower levels in non-metastatic cancers. Consistent with this, PAX2 knockdown repressed cell growth and invasion in a Matrigel invasion assay. Gene ontology analysis revealed that many cell membrane proteins were downregulated after PAX2 knockdown. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggested that PAX2 hyper-expression promotes the development of the metastatic state in prostate cancer cells, presumably through upregulating the expression of cell membrane proteins. Prostate 73: 1403-1412, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1403-1412
Number of pages10
Issue number13
StatePublished - Sep 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • PAX2
  • invasion
  • membrane protein
  • metastasis
  • prostate cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology


Dive into the research topics of 'Hyper-expression of PAX2 in human metastatic prostate tumors and its role as a cancer promoter in an in vitro invasion model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this