Human Intestinal Enteroids: New Models to Study Gastrointestinal Virus Infections

Winnie Y. Zou, Sarah E. Blutt, Sue E. Crawford, Khalil Ettayebi, Xi Lei Zeng, Kapil Saxena, Sasirekha Ramani, Umesh C. Karandikar, Nicholas C. Zachos, Mary K. Estes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Human rotavirus (HRV) and human norovirus (HuNoV) infections are recognized as the most common causes of epidemic and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis worldwide. The study of these two human gastrointestinal viruses is important for understanding basic virus-host interactions and mechanisms of pathogenesis and to establish models to evaluate vaccines and treatments. Despite the introduction of live-attenuated vaccines to prevent life-threatening HRV-induced disease, the burden of HRV illness remains significant in low-income and less-industrialized countries, and small animal models or ex vivo models to study HRV infections efficiently are lacking. Similarly, HuNoVs remained non-cultivatable until recently. With the advent of non-transformed human intestinal enteroid (HIE) cultures, we are now able to culture and study both clinically relevant HRV and HuNoV in a biologically relevant human system. Methods described here will allow investigators to use these new culture techniques to grow HRV and HuNoV and analyze new aspects of virus replication and pathogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)229-247
Number of pages19
JournalMethods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
StatePublished - 2019


  • Gastrointestinal viral infections
  • HIEs
  • Human intestinal enteroids
  • Human norovirus
  • Human rotavirus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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