Human immunodeficiency viral (HIV) infection affects approximately 1.2 million persons in the United States and 35 million worldwide. Progression to advanced liver disease remains a leading cause of death among HIV-infected persons in the United States and elsewhere. Though mortality from HIV complications has been dramatically reduced wherever effective combination antiretroviral therapy is used, there has been little impact on liver-related mortality. Causes of liver disease in the setting of HIV infection include viral hepatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, drug-associated toxicities, and other metabolic/genetic disorders which interact in an environment modulated by persistent immune activation and altered cytokine display. Conclusion: Despite significant advances in treatment of hepatitis C virus and suppression of hepatitis B virus, treatment and management principles for liver disease in HIV-infected patients remain challenging; limited resources, fragmented health care, and high levels of injection drug use, alcohol use, and depression remain relevant issues in the HIV-infected patient.
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