Human ehrlichioses are tick-borne infections caused by bacteria in the genus Ehrlichia. Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by an agent similar to Ehrlichia equi. E. chaffeensis infects mononuclear phagocytes and is transmitted by Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) found in the south central and eastern United States. The agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis infects mostly neutrophils, is transmitted by ixodes species ticks, and occurs mostly in the upper midwest and northeast United States. Despite the undifferentiated presentation of both ehrlichioses with fever, headache, myalgias, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzyme activities, the diagnostic methods are distinct. Occasional severe complications include meningoencephalitis, adult respiratory distress syndrome, shock, and opportunistic infections. Immunocompromised patients are at high risk for death. An adverse outcome is associated with delayed diagnosis and therapy; thus, empirical treatment is advocated. Treatment with doxycycline usually results in prompt defervescence and cure.
- Tick-borne disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology