How to Choose Target Facilities in a Region to Implement Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae Control Measures

Bruce Y. Lee, Sarah M. Bartsch, Mary K. Hayden, Joel Welling, Leslie E. Mueller, Shawn T. Brown, Kruti Doshi, Jim Leonard, Sarah K. Kemble, Robert A. Weinstein, William E. Trick, Michael Y. Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: When trying to control regional spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), decision makers must choose the highest-yield facilities to target for interventions. The question is, with limited resources, how best to choose these facilities. Methods: Using our Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst-generated agent-based model of all Chicago metropolitan area inpatient facilities, we simulated the spread of CRE and different ways of choosing facilities to apply a prevention bundle (screening, chlorhexidine gluconate bathing, hand hygiene, geographic separation, and patient registry) to a resource-limited 1686 inpatient beds. Results: Randomly selecting facilities did not impact prevalence, but averted 620 new carriers and 175 infections, saving $6.3 million in total costs compared to no intervention. Selecting facilities by type (eg, long-term acute care hospitals) yielded a 16.1% relative prevalence decrease, preventing 1960 cases and 558 infections, saving $62.4 million more than random selection. Choosing the largest facilities was better than random selection, but not better than by type. Selecting by considering connections to other facilities (ie, highest volume of discharge patients) yielded a 9.5% relative prevalence decrease, preventing 1580 cases and 470 infections, and saving $51.6 million more than random selection. Selecting facilities using a combination of these metrics yielded the greatest reduction (19.0% relative prevalence decrease, preventing 1840 cases and 554 infections, saving $59.6 million compared with random selection). Conclusions: While choosing target facilities based on single metrics (eg, most inpatient beds, most connections to other facilities) achieved better control than randomly choosing facilities, more effective targeting occurred when considering how these and other factors (eg, patient length of stay, care for higher-risk patients) interacted as a system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)438-447
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 1 2021


  • antibiotic resistance
  • intervention
  • modeling
  • regional approaches
  • targets

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


Dive into the research topics of 'How to Choose Target Facilities in a Region to Implement Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae Control Measures'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this