How do highly sensitized patients get kidney transplants in the United States? Trends over the last decade

Kyle R. Jackson, Jennifer D. Motter, Amber Kernodle, Niraj Desai, Alvin G. Thomas, Allan B. Massie, Jacqueline M. Garonzik-Wang, Dorry L. Segev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Prioritization of highly sensitized (HS) candidates under the kidney allocation system (KAS) and growth of large, multicenter kidney-paired donation (KPD) clearinghouses have broadened the transplant modalities available to HS candidates. To quantify temporal trends in utilization of these modalities, we used SRTR data from 2009 to 2017 to study 39 907 adult HS (cPRA ≥ 80%) waitlisted candidates and 19 003 recipients. We used competing risks regression to quantify temporal trends in likelihood of DDKT, KPD, and non-KPD LDKT for HS candidates (Era 1: January 1, 2009-December 31, 2011; Era 2: January 1, 2012-December 3, 2014; Era 3: December 4, 2014-December 31, 2017). Although the likelihood of DDKT and KPD increased over time for all HS candidates (adjusted subhazard ratio [aSHR] Era 3 vs 1 for DDKT: 1.741.851.97, P <.001 and for KPD: 1.702.202.84, P <.001), the likelihood of non-KPD LDKT decreased (aSHR: 0.690.820.97, P =.02). However, these changes affected HS recipients differently based on cPRA. Among recipients, more cPRA 98%-99.9% and 99.9%+ recipients underwent DDKT (96.2% in Era 3% vs 59.1% in Era 1 for cPRA 99.9%+), whereas fewer underwent non-KPD LDKT (1.9% vs 30.9%) or KPD (2.0% vs 10.0%). Although KAS increased DDKT likelihood for the most HS candidates, it also decreased the use of non-KPD LDKT to transplant cPRA 98%+ candidates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2101-2112
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Transplantation
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2020


  • clinical research/practice
  • donors and donation: deceased
  • donors and donation: paired exchange
  • health services and outcomes research
  • kidney transplantation/nephrology
  • panel reactive antibody (PRA)
  • registry/registry analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Transplantation
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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