Household food insecurity, maternal nutrition, environmental risks and infants' health outcomes: Protocol of the IMPALA birth cohort study in Uganda

Zelalem G. Terfa, Rebecca Nantanda, Maia Lesosky, Graham Devereux, Angela Obasi, Kevin Mortimer, Jahangir Khan, Jamie Rylance, Louis Wihelmus Niessen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), food insecurity and undernutrition disproportionately affect women of reproductive age, infants and young children. The disease burden from undernutrition in these vulnerable sections of societies remains a major concern in LMICs. Biomass fuel use for cooking is also common in LMICs. Empirical evidence from high-income countries indicates that early life nutritional and environmental exposures and their effect on infant lung function are important; however, data from sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Aim To estimate the association between infant lung function and household food insecurity, energy poverty and maternal dietary diversity. Methods and analysis Pregnant women will be recruited in an existing Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in South-West Uganda. Household food insecurity, sources and uses of energy, economic measures and maternal dietary diversity will be collected during pregnancy and after birth. Primary health outcomes will be infant lung function determined by tidal breath flow and volume analysis at 6-10 weeks of age. Infant weight and length will also be collected. A household Food Consumption Score and Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) indicator will be constructed. The involved cost of dietary diversity will be estimated based on MDD-W. The association between household level and mothers' food access indicators and infant lung function will be evaluated using regression models. The Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index (MEPI) will be estimated and used as an indicator of households' environmental exposures. The association between household MEPI and infant lung function will be assessed using econometric models. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approvals have been obtained from Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (18-059), the Uganda Virus Research Institute Ethics Committee (097/2018) and Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (SS 4846). Study results will be shared with participants, policy-makers, other stakeholders and published in peer-reviewed journals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere050729
JournalBMJ open
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 18 2022


  • economics
  • epidemiology
  • public health
  • respiratory infections

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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