Hospital costs for treatment of acute heart failure: Economic analysis of the REVIVE II study

Greg De Lissovoy, Kathy Fraeman, John R. Teerlink, John Mullahy, Jeff Salon, Raimund Sterz, Amy Durtschi, Robert J. Padley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Background Acute heart failure (AHF) is the leading cause of hospital admission among older Americans. The Randomized EValuation of Intravenous Levosimendan Efficacy (REVIVE II) trial compared patients randomly assigned to a single infusion of levosimendan (levo) or placebo (SOC), each in addition to local standard treatments for AHF. We report an economic analysis of REVIVE II from the hospital perspective. Methods REVIVE II enrolled patients (N = 600) hospitalized for treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) who remained dyspneic at rest despite treatment with intravenous diuretics. Case report forms documented index hospital treatment (drug administration, procedures, days of treatment by care unit), as well as subsequent hospital and emergency department admissions during followup ending 90 days from date of randomization. These data were used to impute cost of admission based on an econometric cost function derived from <100,000 ADHF hospital billing records selected per REVIVE II inclusion criteria. Results Index admission mean length of stay (LOS) was shorter for the levo group compared with standard of care (SOC) (7.03 vs 8.96 days, P = 0.008) although intensive care unit (ICU)/cardiac care unit (CCU) days were similar (levo 2.88, SOC 3.22, P = 0.63). Excluding cost for levo, predicted mean (median) cost for the index admission was levo US $13,590 (9,458), SOC $19,021 (10,692) with a difference of $5,431 (1,234) favoring levo (P = 0.04). During follow-up through end of study day 90, no significant differences were observed in numbers of hospital admissions (P = 0.67), inpatient days (P = 0.81) or emergency department visits (P = 0.41). Cost-effectiveness was performed with a REVIVE-II sub-set conforming to current labeling, which excluded patients with low baseline blood pressure. Assuming an average price for levo in countries where currently approved, there was better than 50% likelihood that levo was both cost-saving and improved survival. Likelihood that levo would be cost-effective for willingnessto- pay below $50,000 per year of life gained was about 65%. Conclusions In the REVIVE II trial, patients treated with levo had shorter LOS and lower cost for the initial hospital admission relative to patients treated with SOC. Based on sub-group analysis of patients administered per the current label, levo appears cost-effective relative to SOC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)185-193
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Health Economics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Acute heart failure
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • Dobutamine
  • Health care
  • Hospitalization
  • Inotropes
  • Levosimendan
  • Pharmacoeconomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy
  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)


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