HIV Standard of Care for ART Adherence and Retention in Care Among HIV Medical Care Providers Across Four CNICS Clinics in the US

Sarah Shaw, Riddhi Modi, Michael Mugavero, Carol Golin, Evelyn Byrd Quinlivan, Laramie R. Smith, Katya Roytburd, Heidi Crane, Jeanne Keruly, Anne Zinski, K. Rivet Amico

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Despite the issuance of evidence-based and evidence—informed guidelines to improve engagement in HIV care and adherence-related outcomes, few studies have assessed contemporary adherence or engagement support practices of HIV care providers in US clinics. As a result, the standard of HIV care in the US and globally remains poorly understood. This programmatic assessment approach aimed to identify the strengths and gaps in the current standard of HIV care from the perspective of HIV care providers. A self-administered Standard of Care measure was developed and delivered through Qualtrics to HIV care providers at four different HIV care sites as a part of a multisite intervention study to improve engagement in HIV care and ART adherence. Providers were asked to provide demographic and clinic specific information, identify practices/strategies applied during typical initial visits with HIV-positive patients and visits prior to and at ART initiation, as well as their perceptions of patient behaviors and adequacy of HIV care services at their clinics. Of the 75 surveys which were completed, the majority of respondents were physicians, and on average, providers have worked in HIV care for 13.5 years. Across the sites, 91% of the providers’ patient panels consist of HIV-positive patients, the majority of whom are virally suppressed and 1/5 are considered “out of care.” Few resources were routinely available to providers by other staff related to monitoring patient adherence and engagement in care. During typical initial visits with HIV positive patients, the majority of providers report discussing topics focused on behavioral/life contexts such as sexual partnerships, sexual orientation, disclosure, and other sources of social support. Nearly all providers emphasize the importance of adherence to treatment recommendations and nearly 90% discuss outcomes of good adherence and managing common side effects during ART start visits. Overall, providers do not report often implementing practices to improve retention in care. Survey results point to opportunities to enhance engagement in HIV care and improve ART adherence through systematic data monitoring and increased collaboration across providers and other clinic staff, specifically when identifying patients defined as “in need” or “out of care.” Trial Registration: NCT01900236.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)947-956
Number of pages10
JournalAIDS and behavior
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 15 2019


  • ART adherence
  • Engagement in care
  • HIV
  • Retention
  • Standard of care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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