High prevalence of hepatitis B virus among MSM living with HIV in India

Hussain Syed Iqbal, Mihili P. Gunaratne, Talia A. Loeb, Amrose Pradeep, Allison M. McFall, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, Mark Anderson, Mary A. Rodgers, David D. Celentano, Shruti H. Mehta, Gavin A. Clohertly, Sunil S. Solomon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


People living with HIV (PWH) have been shown to bear a higher burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) due to shared routes and risk factors for transmission. Populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk of both being infected with HBV and HIV, that places them at higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Using weighted and adjusted multilevel logistic regression, we characterized the prevalence and correlates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among MSM living with HIV across 12 Indian cities from 2012 to 2013. Overall, the prevalence of HBsAg was 8% (range across cities: 0.5%–19%). Being between the ages of 25–34, and 35–44 increased the odds of having chronic HBV infection compared to MSM 24 years or younger. Daily or seasonal employment and being unemployed increased the odds of HBsAg prevalence compared to those with monthly or weekly wages. Sexual risk behaviours such as having had sex with both men and women in the prior 6 months and history of sex work increased the odds of having HBV. Ever having insertive sex with a man or hijra (assigned male at birth, currently identifies as female/nonbinary) was negatively associated with HBV. Despite the existence of efficacious vaccines, HBV continues to have high prevalence among PWHs. Programmes to increase early screening, vaccinations and HBV literacy are urgently needed. Integrating HBV and HIV programmes for MSM populations could be critical in addressing this dual burden and improving outcomes for both infections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)271-274
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of viral hepatitis
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2024


  • HBV-HIV co-infection
  • India
  • hepatitis B virus
  • men who have sex with men
  • persons living with HIV

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology
  • Hepatology


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