High energy neutral atom (HENA) imager for the image mission

D. G. Mitchell, S. E. Jaskulek, C. E. Schlemm, E. P. Keath, R. E. Thompson, B. E. Tossman, J. D. Boldt, J. R. Hayes, G. B. Andrews, N. Paschalidis, D. C. Hamilton, R. A. Lundgren, E. O. Tums, P. Wilson IV, H. D. Voss, D. Prentice, K. C. Hsieh, C. C. Curtis, F. R. Powell

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

124 Scopus citations


The IMAGE mission will be the first of its kind, designed to comprehensively image a variety of emissions from the Earth's magnetosphere, with sufficient time resolution to follow the dynamics associated with the development of magnetospheric storms. Energetic neutral atoms (ENA) emitted from the ring current during storms are one of the key emissions that will be imaged. This paper describes the characteristics of the High Energy Neutral Atom imager, HENA. Using pixelated solid state detectors, imaging microchannel plates, electron optics, and time of flight electronics, HENA is designed to return images of the ENA emitting regions of the inner magnetosphere with 2 minute time resolution, at angular resolution of 8 degrees or better above the energy of ~50 keV/nucleon. HENA will also image separately the emissions in hydrogen, helium, and oxygen above 30 keV/nucleon. HENA will reject energetic ions below 200 keV/charge, allowing ENA images to be returned in the presence of ambient energetic ions. HENA images will reveal the distribution and the evolution of energetic ion distributions as they are injected into the ring current during geomagnetic storms, as they drift about the Earth on both open and closed drift paths, and as they decay through charge exchange to pre-storm levels. Substorrn ion injections will also be imaged, as will the regions of low altitude, high latitude ion precipitation into the upper atmosphere.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-112
Number of pages46
JournalSpace Science Reviews
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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