Heroin and cocaine craving and use during treatment: Measurement validation and potential relationships

Adrienne J. Heinz, David H. Epstein, Jennifer R. Schroeder, Edward G. Singleton, Stephen J. Heishman, Kenzie L. Preston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


Although commonly assessed with unidimensional scales, craving has been suggested to be multifaceted and to have a complex relationship with drug use and relapse. This study assessed the consistency and predictive validity of unidimensional and multidimensional craving scales. At the beginning of a 12-week outpatient treatment trial, opiate users (n = 101) and cocaine users (n = 72) completed unidimensional visual analog scales (VASs) assessing "want," "need," and "craving" and multidimensional 14- and 45-item versions of the Cocaine Craving Questionnaire (CCQ) or Heroin Craving Questionnaire (HCQ). Spearman correlations between the VASs and the first-order factors from the 45-item CCQ/HCQ were .20-.40, suggesting that the two types of assessment were not redundant. Treatment dropout and in-treatment drug use were more frequently predicted by scores on the 14- or 45-item CCQ than by VAS ratings. Results suggest that the CCQ/HCQ and the 14-item CCQ provide information that unidimensional VASs do not.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)355-364
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2006


  • Cocaine
  • Craving
  • Heroin
  • Measure
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Phychiatric Mental Health
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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