Hepatitis C Prevalence and Birth Outcomes among Pregnant Women in the United States: A 2010–2020 Population Study

Paul Wasuwanich, Songyos Rajborirug, Robert S. Egerman, Tony S. Wen, Wikrom Karnsakul

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: The rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have increased in the pregnant population. We aim to describe the age-stratified clinical outcomes and trends for inpatient pregnant women with HCV in the U.S. Methods: We utilized hospitalization data from the 2010–2020 National Inpatient Sample. Pregnancy and HCV were identified according to their ICD-9/ICD-10 codes. Demographic and clinical data including cirrhosis, mortality, preterm birth, and stillbirth were extracted. The age groups were defined as ≤18, 19–25, 26–34, and ≥35 years. Results: We identified 195,852 inpatient pregnant women with HCV, among whom 0.7% were ≤18, 26.7% were 19–25, 57.9% were 26–34, and 14.8% were ≥35 years of age. The hospitalization rates of pregnant women with HCV increased overall between 2010 and 2020, with the highest velocity in the 26–34 age group. The 26–34 age group had the highest HCV burden, with an age-standardized hospitalization rate of 660 per 100,000 in 2020. The rates of mortality and cirrhosis were significantly higher in the HCV cohort and increased further with age (p < 0.05). Among the HCV pregnant cohort, 151,017 (77.1%) delivered during hospitalization. Preterm births and stillbirths were significantly higher in the HCV pregnant cohort compared to the controls across multiple age groups (p < 0.05). Minority race/ethnicity was associated with increased mortality, cirrhosis, preterm birth, and stillbirth (p < 0.001). HIV co-infection, hepatitis B co-infection, and diabetes increased the odds of cirrhosis (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Hospitalizations of pregnant women with HCV are escalating, and these women are at increased risk of mortality, cirrhosis, preterm birth, and stillbirth with modifying factors, exacerbating risks further.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number321
JournalPathogens
Volume13
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2024

Keywords

  • epidemiology
  • liver cirrhosis
  • public health
  • seroepidemiologic studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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