Hemoglobin E is largely confined to south and southeast Asia. The association between hemoglobin E (HbE) and malaria is less clear than that of hemoglobin S and C. As part of a malaria study in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh, an initial random sample of 202 individuals showed that 39% and 49% of Marma and Khyang ethnic groups, respectively, were positive for either heterozygous or homozygous hemoglobin E. In this group, 6.4% were also found to be severely deficient and 35% mildly deficient for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). In a separate Plasmodium falciparum malaria case-uninfected control study, the odds of having homozygous hemoglobin E (HbEE) compared with normal hemoglobin (HbAA) were higher among malaria cases detected by passive surveillance than age and location matched uninfected controls (odds ratio [OR] = 5.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-46.93). The odds of heterozygous hemoglobin E (HbAE) compared with HbAA were similar between malaria cases and uninfected controls (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.42-1.19). No association by hemoglobin type was found in the initial parasite density or the proportion parasite negative after 2 days of artemether/lumefantrine treatment. HbEE, but not HbAE status was associated with increased passive case detection of malaria.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases