Head injuries: Costs and consequences

Wendy Max, Ellen J. Mackenzie, Dorothy P. Rice

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

187 Scopus citations


Head injuries are costly in terms of lives lost, productivity losses, and health care expenditures. The article develops an economic model that is used to estimate the lifetime cost of all head injuries sustained in 1985 that resulted in hospitalization or death. Included are the costs of medical services, productivity lost because of illness and disability, and mortality costs resulting from premature death. These estimates are presented by age, gender, and severity of injury. The cost of head injuries is compared with the cost of all injuries. The need for better data on the incidence, health care needs, and service utilization of head-injured persons is noted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)76-91
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1991

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation
  • Clinical Neurology


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