Grip force control during virtual objectinteraction: Effect of force feedback, Accuracy Demands, and Training

Tricia L. Gibo, Amy J. Bastian, Allison M. Okamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


When grasping and manipulating objects, people are able to efficiently modulate their grip force according to the experienced load force. Effective grip force control involves providing enough grip force to prevent the object from slipping, while avoiding excessive force to avoid damage and fatigue. During indirect object manipulation via teleoperation systems or in virtual environments, users often receive limited somatosensory feedback about objects with which they interact. This study examines the effects of force feedback, accuracy demands, and training on grip force control during object interaction in a virtual environment. The task required subjects to grasp and move a virtual object while tracking a target. When force feedback was not provided, subjects failed to couple grip and load force, a capability fundamental to direct object interaction. Subjects also exerted larger grip force without force feedback and when accuracy demands of the tracking task were high. In addition, the presence or absence of force feedback during training affected subsequent performance, even when the feedback condition was switched. Subjects' grip force control remained reminiscent of their employed grip during the initial training. These results motivate the use of force feedback during telemanipulation and highlight the effect of force feedback during training.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6674293
Pages (from-to)37-47
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Haptics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2014


  • Grip force modulation
  • Teleoperation
  • force feedback
  • virtual environment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications


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