Green Toxicology: a strategy for sustainable chemical and material development

Sarah E. Crawford, Thomas Hartung, Henner Hollert, Björn Mathes, Bennard van Ravenzwaay, Thomas Steger-Hartmann, Christoph Studer, Harald F. Krug

Research output: Contribution to journalEditorialpeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Green Toxicology refers to the application of predictive toxicology in the sustainable development and production of new less harmful materials and chemicals, subsequently reducing waste and exposure. Built upon the foundation of “Green Chemistry” and “Green Engineering”, “Green Toxicology” aims to shape future manufacturing processes and safe synthesis of chemicals in terms of environmental and human health impacts. Being an integral part of Green Chemistry, the principles of Green Toxicology amplify the role of health-related aspects for the benefit of consumers and the environment, in addition to being economical for manufacturing companies. Due to the costly development and preparation of new materials and chemicals for market entry, it is no longer practical to ignore the safety and environmental status of new products during product development stages. However, this is only possible if toxicologists and chemists work together early on in the development of materials and chemicals to utilize safe design strategies and innovative in vitro and in silico tools. This paper discusses some of the most relevant aspects, advances and limitations of the emergence of Green Toxicology from the perspective of different industry and research groups. The integration of new testing methods and strategies in product development, testing and regulation stages are presented with examples of the application of in silico, omics and in vitro methods. Other tools for Green Toxicology, including the reduction of animal testing, alternative test methods, and read-across approaches are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number16
JournalEnvironmental Sciences Europe
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017


  • Alternative animal testing
  • Green Chemistry
  • Green Toxicology
  • In vitro assays
  • Predictive toxicology
  • Toxicogenomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution


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