Graves ophthalmopathy

Emma C. McDonnell, Timothy J. McCulley

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Graves ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune disease that affects the orbit and the adnexa. During the active phase, usually lasting from 6 months to 2 years, there is enlargement and fibrosis of the orbital fat and extraocular muscles, which can lead to ocular surface disease, abnormal extraocular motility, compressive optic neuropathy, and cosmetic impairment. Management can be divided into three broad categories: supportive, immunomodulatory, and reconstructive. When a patient's disease reaches a level of severity that requires treatment beyond supportive measures such as lubrication, immunomodulatory therapies and surgical intervention may be necessary. Methods to treat the active disease include radiation and medical treatments, with steroids or the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitor, teprotumumab, which was FDA approved in January of 2020. Reconstructive procedures may be used to manage optic nerve compression, proptosis, eyelid malposition, and ocular misalignment. In this chapter, we address presentation, diagnosis, and management of Graves ophthalmopathy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationControversies in Neuro-Ophthalmic Management
Subtitle of host publicationAn Evidence and Case-Based Appraisal
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9783030741037
ISBN (Print)9783030741020
StatePublished - Jun 25 2021


  • Compressive optic neuropathy
  • Graves disease
  • Graves ophthalmopathy
  • Intravenous steroids
  • Orbital decompression
  • Orbital radiation
  • Teprotumumab
  • Thyroid eye disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Graves ophthalmopathy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this