Gonorrhoea and chlamydia diagnosis as an entry point for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: A modelling study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objectives Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) increase the risk of HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). Diagnosis of NG/CT may provide an efficient entry point for prevention of HIV through the delivery of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP); however, the additional population-level impact of targeting PrEP to MSM diagnosed with NG/CT is unknown. Design An agent-based simulation model of NG/CT and HIV cocirculation among MSM calibrated against census data, disease surveillance reports and the US National HIV Behavioral Surveillance study. Setting Baltimore City, Maryland, USA. Interventions PrEP implementation was modelled under three alternative scenarios: (1) PrEP delivery at NG/CT diagnosis (targeted delivery), (2) PrEP evaluation at NG/CT screening/testing and (3) PrEP evaluation in the general community (untargeted). Main outcome The projected incidence of HIV after 20 years of PrEP delivery under two alternatives: when equal numbers of MSM are (1) screened for PrEP or (2) receive PrEP in each year. Results Assuming 60% uptake and 60% adherence, targeting PrEP to MSM diagnosed with NG/CT could reduce HIV incidence among MSM in Baltimore City by 12.4% (95% uncertainty range (UR) 10.3% to 14.4%) in 20 years, relative to no PrEP. Expanding the coverage of NG/CT screening (such that individuals experience a 50% annual probability of NG/CT screening and evaluation for PrEP on NG/CT diagnosis) can further increase the impact of targeted PrEP to generate a 22.0% (95% UR 20.1% to 23.9%) reduction in HIV incidence within 20 years. When compared with alternative implementation scenarios, PrEP evaluation at NG/CT diagnosis increased impact of PrEP on HIV incidence by 1.5(95% UR 1.1 to 1.9) times relative to a scenario in which PrEP evaluation happened at the time of NG/CT screening/testing and by 1.6 (95% UR 1.2 to 2.2) times relative to evaluating random MSM from the community. Conclusions Targeting MSM infected with NG/CT increases the efficiency and effectiveness of PrEP delivery. If high levels of sexually transmitted infection screening can be achieved at the community level, NG/CT diagnosis may be a highly effective entry point for PrEP initialisation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number023453
JournalBMJ open
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019


  • Chlamydia
  • Computer simulation
  • Gonorrhea
  • HIV infection
  • Homosexuality
  • Pre-exposure prophylaxis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Gonorrhoea and chlamydia diagnosis as an entry point for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: A modelling study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this