GM-CSF-secreting vaccines for solid tumors

Leisha A. Emens

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Whole tumor cells that secrete GM-CSF have been tested in clinical trials and have demonstrated early evidence of safety and clinical activity. The intradermal administration of these cells induces a massive infiltration of dendritic cells, which process and present tumor antigens to activate tumor-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. However, trial design flaws limit the phase III evaluation of this vaccine platform. Preclinical and clinical data suggest the development of GM-CSF-secreting tumor vaccines should be continued in combination with drugs that enhance vaccine activity by mitigating immune tolerance or augmenting costimulatory pathways of T-cell activation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1315-1324
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Opinion in Investigational Drugs
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2009


  • Cancer vaccine
  • Clinical trial
  • GM-CSF
  • Immunotherapy
  • Solid tumor
  • Tumor cell vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery


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