GM-CSF gene-modifed cancer cell immunotherapies: Of mice and men

Kristen M. Hege, Karin Jooss, Drew Pardoll

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

76 Scopus citations


GVAX cancer immunotherapies are composed of whole tumor cells genetically modified to secrete the immune stimulatory cytokine, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and then irradiated to prevent further cell division. Both autologous (patient specific) and allogeneic (non-patient specific) GVAX platforms have been evaluated either as single agents or in combination with other immunomodulatory strategies. Many early-phase clinical trials have now been completed. Results have consistently demonstrated a favorable safety profile manifested primarily by injection site reactions and flu-like symptoms. Consistent evidence of immune activation and clinical activity, including radiologic tumor regressions, has been seen across multiple cancer indications in both early- and late-stage disease. Phase 3 trials evaluating an allogeneic GVAX immunotherapy product in prostate cancer are under way.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)321-352
Number of pages32
JournalInternational Reviews of Immunology
Issue number5-6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2006


  • Cancer vaccine
  • GM-CSF
  • GVAX
  • Immunotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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