Global vaccine coverage and childhood survival estimates: 1990–2019

Haijun Zhang, Bryan Patenaude, Haonan Zhang, Mark Jit, Hai Fang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective To quantify the association between reduction in child mortality and routine immunization across 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. Methods We used child mortality and vaccine coverage data from the Global Burden of Disease Study. We used a modified child survival framework and applied a mixed-effects regression model to estimate the reduction in deaths in children younger than 5 years associated with eight vaccines. Findings Between 1990 and 2019, the diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis (DTP), measles, rotavirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines were significantly associated with an estimated 86.9 (95% confidence interval, CI: 57.2 to 132.4) million fewer deaths in children younger than 5 years worldwide. This decrease represented a 24.2% (95% CI: 19.8 to 28.9) reduction in deaths relative to a scenario without vaccines. The DTP and measles vaccines averted 46.7 (95% CI: 30.0 to 72.7) million and 37.9 (95% CI: 25.4 to 56.8) million deaths, respectively. Of the total reduction in child mortality associated with vaccines, 84.2% (95% CI: 83.0 to 85.1) occurred in 73 countries supported by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, with an estimated 45.4 (95% CI: 29.8 to 69.2) million fewer deaths from 2000 to 2019. The largest reductions in deaths associated with these four vaccines were in India, China, Ethiopia, Pakistan and Bangladesh (in order of the size of reduction). Conclusion Vaccines continue to reduce childhood mortality significantly, especially in Gavi-supported countries, emphasizing the need for increased investment in routine immunization programmes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)276-287
Number of pages12
JournalBulletin of the World Health Organization
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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