Global research and learning agenda for building evidence on contraceptive-induced menstrual changes for research, product development, policies, and programs

Emily Hoppes, Chukwuemeka Nwachukwu, Julie Hennegan, Diana L. Blithe, Amanda Cordova-Gomez, Hilary Critchley, Gustavo F. Doncel, Laneta J. Dorflinger, Lisa B. Haddad, Amelia C.L. Mackenzie, Jacqueline A. Maybin, Kelle Moley, Kavita Nanda, Carolina Sales Vieira, Bellington Vwalika, Simon P.S. Kibira, Alexandria Mickler, Funmilola M. OlaOlorun, Chelsea B. Polis, Marni SommerKatie M. Williams, Eva Lathrop, Tanya Mahajan, Kate H. Rademacher, Marsden Solomon, Katrina Wilson, Lucy C. Wilson, Lillian Rountree

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Contraceptive-induced menstrual changes (CIMCs) can affect family planning (FP) users' lives in both positive and negative ways, resulting in both opportunities and consequences. Despite this, and despite the important links between FP and menstrual health (MH), neither field adequately addresses CIMCs, including in research, product development, policies, and programs globally. Methods: In November 2020, a convening of both MH and FP experts reviewed the existing evidence on CIMCs and identified significant gaps in key areas. Results: These gaps led to the establishment of a CIMC Task Force in April 2021 and the development of the Global Research and Learning Agenda: Building Evidence on Contraceptive-Induced Menstrual Changes in Research, Product Development, Policies, and Programs Globally (the CIMC RLA) , which includes four research agendas for (1) measurement, (2) contraceptive research and development (R&D) and biomedical research, (3) social-behavioral and user preferences research, and (4) programmatic research. Conclusions: Guided by the CIMC RLA, researchers, product developers, health care providers, program implementers, advocates, policymakers, and funders are urged to conduct research and implement strategies to address the beneficial and negative effects of CIMCs and support the integration of FP and MH. CIMCs need to be addressed to improve the health and well-being of women, girls, and other people who menstruate and use contraceptives globally. Disclaimer : The views expressed in this article are those of the authors. Publication in Gates Open Research does not imply endorsement by the Gates Foundation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number49
JournalGates Open Research
StatePublished - 2022


  • CIMC
  • Contraceptive
  • Contraceptive-induced menstrual change
  • Family planning
  • Menstrual change
  • Menstrual health
  • Research agenda
  • Research and learning agenda

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous)
  • Health Policy
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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