Genomic structure of rat 3α-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (3α-HSD/DD, AKR1C9)

Hsueh Kung Lin, Chien Fu Hung, Margaret Moore, Trevor M. Penning

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13 Scopus citations


Rat liver 3α-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (3α-HSD/DD) is a member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. It is involved in the inactivation of steroid hormones and the metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by converting trans-dihydrodiols into reactive and redox-active o-quinones. The structure of the 5'-flanking region of the gene and factors involved in the constitutive and regulated expression of this gene have been reported [H.-K. Lin, T.M. Penning, Cloning, sequencing, and functional analysis of the 5'-flanking region of the rat 3α- hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase gene, Cancer Res. 55 (1995) 4105- 4113]. We now describe the complete genomic structure of the rat type 1 3α- HSD/DD gene. Charon 4A and P1 genomic clones contained at least three rat genes (type 1, type 2 and type 3 3α-HSD/DD) each of which encoded for the same open reading frame (ORF) but differed in their exon-intron organization. 5'-RACE confirmed that the type 1 3α-HSD/DD gene encodes for the dominant transcript in rat liver and it was the regulation of this gene that was previously studied. The rat type 1 3α-HSD/DD gene is 30 kb in length and consists of nine exons and eight introns. Exon 9 encodes +931 to 966 bp of the ORF and the 1292 bp 3'-UTR implicated in mRNA stability. This genomic structure is nearly identical to the homologous human genes, type 1 3α-HSD (chlordecone reductase/DD4, AKR1C4), type 2 3α-HSD (AKR1C3) and type 3 3α- HSD (bile-acid binding protein, AKR1C2) genes. Three different cDNA's containing identical ORFs for 3α-HSD have been reported suggesting that all three genes may be expressed in rat liver. Using 5' primers corresponding to the 5'-UTR's of the three different cDNA's only one PCR fragment was obtained and corresponded to the type 1 3α-HSD/DD gene. These data suggested that the type 2 and type 3 3α-HSD/DD genes are not abundantly expressed in rat liver. It is unknown whether the type 2 and type 3 3α-HSD/DD genes represent pseudo-genes or whether they represent genes that are differentially expressed in other rat tissues.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29-39
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Nov 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • 3α-Hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase
  • Aldo-keto reductase
  • Genomic structure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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