Circulating levels of inflammatory markers predict the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), mediated perhaps in part by dietary fat intake, through mechanisms only partially understood. To evaluate post-fat load changes in inflammatory markers and genetic influences on these changes, we administered a standardized high-fat meal to 838 related Amish subjects as part of the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study and measured a panel of inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-1Β (IL-1Β), matrix metalloproteinase-1 and-9 (MMP-1 and MMP-9), and white blood cell (WBC) count, before and 4h after fat challenge (CRP prechallenge only). Heritabilities (h2 ± s.d.) of basal inflammatory levels ranged from 16 8% for MMP-9 (P = 0.02) to 90 7% for MMP-1 (P <0.0001). Post-fat load, circulating levels of WBC, MMP-1, and MMP-9 increased by 16, 32, and 43% (all P < 0.0001), with no significant changes in IL-1Β. Postprandial changes over the 4-h period were modestly heritable for WBC (age-and sex-adjusted h2 = 14 ± 9%, P = 0.04), but the larger MMP-1 and MMP-9 changes appeared to be independent of additive genetic effects. These results reveal that a high-fat meal induces a considerable inflammatory response. Genetic factors appear to play a significant role influencing basal inflammatory levels but to have minimal influence on post-fat intake inflammatory changes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics