Gene expression of metabolic enzymes and a protease inhibitor in the prefrontal cortex are decreased in schizophrenia

Marquis P. Vawter, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Erick Ferran, Mitsuyuki Matsumoto, Kevin Overman, Thomas M. Hyde, Daniel R. Weinberger, William E. Bunney, Joel E. Kleinman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

81 Scopus citations


Microarray expression studies have reported decreased mRNA expression of histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein (HINT1) and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (MDH1) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of individuals with schizophrenia. Microarray results for neuroserpin (SERPINI1) mRNA in the DLPFC have reported increased and decreased expression in individuals with schizophrenia. The relative abundances of HINT1, MDH1, and SERPINI1 mRNA in the DLPFC in individuals with schizophrenia and controls were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and for HINT1 expression by in situ hybridization. The Q-PCR results were compared by analysis of covariance between individuals with schizophrenia and controls. Gene expression levels for HINT1, MDH1, and SERPINI1 were significantly different between the groups. The male individuals with schizophrenia compared to male controls showed reductions by 2.8- to 3.7-fold of HINT1, neuroserpin, and MDH1 by Q-PCR. The decreases in mRNA abundance for MDH1 (P = 0.006), HINT1 (P = 0.050), and neuroserpin (P = 0.005) in DLPFC of male individuals with schizophrenia is consistent with prior reports. HINT1 mRNA was reduced significantly by 34% in layer VI. Though there were no significant interactions with gender, gene expression between female patients and the female control group did not differ. These results confirm earlier reports and suggest abnormalities of specific genes related to metabolic and protease activities in the DLPFC might be considered as part of a molecular pathway in male patients with schizophrenia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1245-1255
Number of pages11
JournalNeurochemical Research
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase
  • Gene expression
  • Histidine-nucleotide triad binding protein
  • In situ hybridization histochemistry
  • Microarray
  • Neuroserpin
  • Real-time quantitative PCR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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