Gender-based cardiometabolic risk evaluation in minority and non-minority men grading the evidence of non-traditional determinants of cardiovascular risk

K. L. Billups, M. M. Miner, A. S. Wierzbicki, G. Jackson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Evaluation of cardiometabolic risk has become vital in primary prevention of adverse vascular events (coronary artery disease, heart attack, stroke or congestive heart failure), particularly in younger middle-aged men (40-60 years old). To discern the prevalence of events in these men, clinicians often stratify cardiovascular risk and treat according to traditional Framingham risk criteria. Yet it is evident that the traditional Framingham risk assigned to intermediate- and low-risk men will miss several of these individuals deemed at high 'cardiometabolic risk', also known as residual cardiovascular risk. This review will elaborate the definition of cardiometabolic risk and apply the use of surrogate markers for cardiovascular risk stratification in men in addition to the traditional Framingham-based markers. It will utilise both gender non-specific and gender-specific determinants of cardiometabolic risk. Lastly, it will examine minority men's health and racial differences in these determinants of cardiovascular risk. This analysis includes an electronic literature search utilising PubMed, EMBASE and MEDLINE databases to clarify the level of evidence for the stepwise utility of novel biomarkers for cardiometabolic risk in the male patient. This manuscript generates discussion of the utility of markers of cardiometabolic risk stratification. The following questions are summarised: (i) Are there non-traditional tests that might define this risk better than traditional markers? (ii) Will treatment based on this risk assessment augment present risk stratification and lower cardiovascular risk? (iii) What is known regarding racial differences surrounding cardiometabolic risk assessment? Traditional risk factors including Framingham Risk Score underestimate the overall 10 year and lifetime risk for the intermediate-risk younger middle-aged men < 60 years of age. This fact is especially true in the minority population. We have graded the evidence of non-gender specific and gender-specific markers of cardiometabolic risk, thereby, allowing greater clarification of risk in this population. The pragmatic use of these novel markers of cardiometabolic risk may help stratify those individuals at greater lifetime risk than that noted by the Framingham Risk Score.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)134-147
Number of pages14
JournalInternational journal of clinical practice
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2011
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Gender-based cardiometabolic risk evaluation in minority and non-minority men grading the evidence of non-traditional determinants of cardiovascular risk'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this