Gastrokine 1 inhibits gastrin-induced cell proliferation

Olga Kim, Jung Hwan Yoon, Won Suk Choi, Hassan Ashktorab, Duane T. Smoot, Suk Woo Nam, Jung Young Lee, Won Sang Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: Gastrokine 1 (GKN1) acts as a gastric tumor suppressor. Here, we investigated whether GKN1 contributes to the maintenance of gastric mucosal homeostasis by regulating gastrin-induced gastric epithelial cell growth. Methods: We assessed the effects of gastrin and GKN1 on cell proliferation in stable AGSGKN1 and MKN1GKN1 gastric cancer cell lines and HFE-145 nonneoplastic epithelial cells. Cell viability and proliferation were analyzed by MTT and BrdU incorporation assays, respectively. Cell cycle and expression of growth factor receptors were examined by flow cytometry and Western blot analyses. Results: Gastrin treatment stimulated a significant time-dependent increase in cell viability and proliferation in AGSmock and MKN1mock, but not in HFE-145, AGSGKN1, and MKN1GKN1, cells, which stably expressed GKN1. Additionally, gastrin markedly increased the S-phase cell population, whereas GKN1 significantly inhibited the effect of gastrin by regulating the expression of G1/S cell-cycle regulators. Furthermore, gastrin induced activation of the NF-kB and β-catenin signaling pathways and increased the expression of CCKBR, EGFR, and c-Met in AGS and MKN1 cells. However, GKN1 completely suppressed these effects of gastrin via downregulation of gastrin/CCKBR/growth factor receptor expression. Moreover, GKN1 reduced gastrin and CCKBR mRNA expression in AGS and MKN1 cells, and there was an inverse correlation between GKN1 and gastrin, as well as between GKN1 and CCKBR mRNA expression in noncancerous gastric mucosae. Conclusion: These data suggest that GKN1 may contribute to the maintenance of gastric epithelial homeostasis and inhibit gastric carcinogenesis by downregulating the gastrin-CCKBR signaling pathway.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)381-391
Number of pages11
JournalGastric Cancer
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016


  • Cell growth
  • GKN1
  • Gastrin
  • Homeostasis
  • Stomach

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Cancer Research


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