Funding gap for immunization across 94 low- and middle-income countries

Sachiko Ozawa, Simrun Grewal, Allison Portnoy, Anushua Sinha, Richard Arilotta, Meghan L. Stack, Logan Brenzel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Novel vaccine development and production has given rise to a growing number of vaccines that can prevent disease and save lives. In order to realize these health benefits, it is essential to ensure adequate immunization financing to enable equitable access to vaccines for people in all communities. This analysis estimates the full immunization program costs, projected available financing, and resulting funding gap for 94 low- and middle-income countries over five years (2016–2020). Vaccine program financing by country governments, Gavi, and other development partners was forecasted for vaccine, supply chain, and service delivery, based on an analysis of comprehensive multi-year plans together with a series of scenario and sensitivity analyses. Findings indicate that delivery of full vaccination programs across 94 countries would result in a total funding gap of $7.6 billion (95% uncertainty range: $4.6–$11.8 billion) over 2016–2020, with the bulk (98%) of the resources required for routine immunization programs. More than half (65%) of the resources to meet this funding gap are required for service delivery at $5.0 billion ($2.7–$8.4 billion) with an additional $1.1 billion ($0.9–$2.7 billion) needed for vaccines and $1.5 billion ($1.1–$2.0 billion) for supply chain. When viewed as a percentage of total projected costs, the funding gap represents 66% of projected supply chain costs, 30% of service delivery costs, and 9% of vaccine costs. On average, this funding gap corresponds to 0.2% of general government expenditures and 2.3% of government health expenditures. These results suggest greater need for country and donor resource mobilization and funding allocation for immunizations. Both service delivery and supply chain are important areas for further resource mobilization. Further research on the impact of advances in service delivery technology and reductions in vaccine prices beyond this decade would be important for efficient investment decisions for immunization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6408-6416
Number of pages9
Issue number50
StatePublished - Dec 7 2016


  • Financing
  • Funding gap
  • Immunization
  • Low- and middle-income country
  • Vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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