Frequency, Risk Factors, and Mediators of Frailty Transitions During Long-Term Follow-Up Among People With HIV and HIV-Negative AGEhIV Cohort Participants

Eveline Verheij, Ferdinand W. Wit, Sebastiaan O. Verboeket, Maarten F.Schim Van Der Loeff, Jeannine F. Nellen, Peter Reiss, Gregory D. Kirk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background:We previously demonstrated a higher prevalence of frailty among AGEhIV-cohort participants with HIV (PWH) than among age- and lifestyle-comparable HIV-negative participants. Furthermore, frailty was associated with the development of comorbidities and mortality. As frailty may be a dynamic state, we evaluated the frequency of transitions between frailty states, and explored which factors were associated with transition toward frailty in this cohort.Methods:The study enrolled 598 PWH and 550 HIV-negative participants aged ≥45 years. Of those, 497 and 479 participants, respectively, participated in ≥2 consecutive biennial study-visits between October 2010 and October 2016, contributing 918 and 915 visit-pairs, respectively. We describe the frequency, direction, and risk factors of frailty transitions. Logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate determinants for transition to frailty, including HIV-status, socio-demographic, behavioral, HIV-related factors, and various inflammatory and related biomarkers.Results:Transitioning between frailty states in any direction occurred in 36% of a total of 1833 visit-pairs. The odds of nonfrail participants transitioning toward frailty were significantly higher for PWH, occurring in 35 PWH (7.3%) and 25 (5.2%) HIV-negative nonfrail participants, respectively (odd ratioHIV 2.19, 95% confidence interval 1.28 to 3.75). The increased risk among PWH was attenuated when sequentially adjusting for waist-hip ratio, number of pre-existent comorbidities, and the presence of depressive symptoms.Conclusion:PWH are at increased risk of transitioning to frailty, and thereby at increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Whether optimizing the management of obesity, comorbidity, or depressive symptoms may modify the risk of becoming frail requires further investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)110-118
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021


  • HIV
  • comorbidities
  • depression
  • frailty
  • transitions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Frequency, Risk Factors, and Mediators of Frailty Transitions During Long-Term Follow-Up Among People With HIV and HIV-Negative AGEhIV Cohort Participants'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this