Fragile X Syndrome: From Molecular Aspect to Clinical Treatment

Dragana D. Protic, Ramkumar Aishworiya, Maria Jimena Salcedo-Arellano, Si Jie Tang, Jelena Milisavljevic, Filip Mitrovic, Randi J. Hagerman, Dejan B. Budimirovic

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by the full mutation as well as highly localized methylation of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the long arm of the X chromosome. Children with FXS are commonly co-diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, attention and learning problems, anxiety, aggressive behavior and sleep disorder, and early interventions have improved many behavior symptoms associated with FXS. In this review, we performed a literature search of original and review articles data of clinical trials and book chapters using MEDLINE (1990–2021) and While we have reviewed the biological importance of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), the FXS phenotype, and current diagnosis techniques, the emphasis of this review is on clinical interventions. Early non-pharmacological interventions in combination with pharmacotherapy and targeted treatments aiming to reverse dysregulated brain pathways are the mainstream of treatment in FXS. Overall, early diagnosis and interventions are fundamental to achieve optimal clinical outcomes in FXS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1935
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 1 2022


  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Behavior problems
  • FMR1 gene
  • FMRP
  • Fragile X syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Catalysis
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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