Four-dimensional (4D) image reconstruction strategies in dynamic PET: Beyond conventional independent frame reconstruction

Arman Rahmim, Jing Tang, Habib Zaidi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

114 Scopus citations


In this article, the authors review novel techniques in the emerging field of spatiotemporal four-dimensional (4D) positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction. The conventional approach to dynamic PET imaging, involving independent reconstruction of individual PET frames, can suffer from limited temporal resolution, high noise (especially when higher frame sampling is introduced to better capture fast dynamics), as well as complex reconstructed image noise distributions that can be very difficult and time consuming to model in kinetic parameter estimation tasks. Various approaches that seek to address some or all of these limitations are described, including techniques that utilize (a) iterative temporal smoothing, (b) advanced temporal basis functions, (c) principal components transformation of the dynamic data, (d) wavelet-based techniques, as well as (e) direct kinetic parameter estimation methods. Future opportunities and challenges with regards to the adoption of 4D and higher dimensional image reconstruction techniques are also outlined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3654-3670
Number of pages17
JournalMedical physics
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2009


  • Dynamic imaging
  • Five-dimensional (5D)
  • Four-dimensional (4D)
  • PET
  • Spatiotemporal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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