Forehead reconstruction with microvascular flaps: Utility of aesthetic subunits

Claude Muresan, Helen G. Hui-Chou, Amir H. Dorafshar, Paul N. Manson, Eduardo D. Rodriguez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Background Current literature describes the forehead as one aesthetic subunit of the face. We argue for the usefulness of aesthetic forehead subunits when microvascular flap reconstruction is required. Key to utilization of microvascular flaps for restoration of forehead subunits is an understanding of the patient population and defect characteristics most amiable to treatment. Methods We conducted an International Review Board-approved retrospective chart review of nine consecutive patients who had undergone free flap reconstruction for large forehead defects. Results The patients' foreheads included one paramedian defect; one central and paramedian defect; four central, paramedian, and lateral defects; and three lateral defects. Seven patients had ulnar forearm flaps and two had anterolateral thigh flaps. The success rate was 100%. Conclusion A forehead subunit classification system has been devised that provides a suitable option for cases that benefit from distant tissue replacement in a single stage, while preserving the principles of aesthetic replacement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)319-326
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of reconstructive microsurgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - Apr 20 2012


  • central
  • forehead aesthetic subunit
  • forehead microvascular flap
  • lateral forehead subunits
  • paramedian

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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