Focused Ultrasound Neuromodulation of Human In Vitro Neural Cultures in Multi-Well Microelectrode Arrays

Ruixing Liang, Griffin Mess, Joshua Punnoose, Kelley M. Kempski Leadingham, Constantin Smit, Nitish Thakor, Christa W. Habela, Betty Tyler, Yousef Salimpour, Amir Manbachi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The neuromodulatory effects of focused ultrasound (FUS) have been demonstrated in animal models, and FUS has been used successfully to treat movement and psychiatric disorders in humans. However, despite the success of FUS, the mechanism underlying its effects on neurons remains poorly understood, making treatment optimization by tuning FUS parameters difficult. To address this gap in knowledge, we studied human neurons in vitro using neurons cultured from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (HiPSCs). Using HiPSCs allows for the study of human-specific neuronal behaviors in both physiologic and pathologic states. This report presents a protocol for using a high-throughput system that enables the monitoring and quantification of the neuromodulatory effects of FUS on HiPSC neurons. By varying the FUS parameters and manipulating the HiPSC neurons through pharmaceutical and genetic modifications, researchers can evaluate the neural responses and elucidate the neuro-modulatory effects of FUS on HiPSC neurons. This research could have significant implications for the development of safe and effective FUS-based therapies for a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere65115
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number207
StatePublished - May 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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