Feasibility and quality of nonmydriatic fundus photography in children

Daniela Toffoli, Beau B. Bruce, Cédric Lamirel, Amanda D. Henderson, Nancy J. Newman, Valérie Biousse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Purpose: Ocular funduscopic examination is difficult in young children and is rarely attempted by nonophthalmologists. Our objective was to determine the feasibility of reliably obtaining high-quality nonmydriatic fundus photographs in children. Methods: Nonmydriatic fundus photographs were obtained in both eyes of children seen in a pediatric ophthalmology clinic. Ease of fundus photography was recorded on a 10-point Likert scale (10 = very easy). Quality was graded from 1 to 5 (1, inadequate for any diagnostic purpose; 2, unable to exclude all emergent findings; 3, only able to exclude emergent findings; 4, not ideal, but still able to exclude subtle findings; and 5, ideal quality). The primary outcome measure was image quality by age. Results: A total of 878 photographs of 212 children (median age, 6 years; range, 1-18 years) were included. Photographs of at least one eye were obtained in 190 children (89.6%) and in both eyes in 181 (85.3%). Median rating for ease of photography was 7. Photographs of some clinical value (grade ≥2) were obtained in 33% of children <3 years and 95% ≥3 years. High-quality photographs (grade 4 or 5) were obtained in both eyes in 7% of children <3 years, 57% of children ≥3 to <7 years, 85% of children ≥7 to <9 years, and 65% of children ≥9 years. The youngest patient with high-quality photographs in both eyes was 22 months. Conclusions: Nonmydriatic fundus photographs of adequate quality can be obtained in children over age 3 and in some children as young as 22 months.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)567-572
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of AAPOS
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2011
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Ophthalmology


Dive into the research topics of 'Feasibility and quality of nonmydriatic fundus photography in children'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this